The Sand Lizard

The Sand Lizard

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Art.Nr.: 978-3-933066-55-8

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Ina Blanke & Helen Fearnley
The Sand Lizard
Between light and shadow

October 2015, 192 pages, with 73 Figures, 17 Tables and 15 Colour plates
Br, 15 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-3-933066-55-8

Die englische Ausgabe basiert auf der 2.  Auflage der "Zauneidechse" von Ina Blanke aus dem Jahr 2010 und präsentiert den aktualisierten Forschungsstand zur Biologie der Art, z. B. zu Kletterfähigkeit, Kälteresistenz und Ernährung sowie aktualisierte Daten zu Verbreitung und Systematik.
Für den Artenschutz und die Planungspraxis besonders bedeutsam sind neue Erkenntnisse zur Raumnutzung und Praxisbeispiele zur Vermeidung und Minimierung von Eingriffen.
Ungeahnte Fangerfolge durch die Kombination alter und neuer Fangmethoden bei Umsiedlungen werfen auch ein neues Licht auf die Aktivität der Tiere und die Schätzung von Populationsgrößen. Auch auf neue Gefährdungsursachen wird eingegangen.
Noch mehr als die letzte deutsche Ausgabe von 2010 richtet sich diese Ausgabe auch an Nicht-Biologen, was sich in zahlreichen vertiefenden Erklärungen widerspiegelt.

The lives of sand lizards are characterised by light and shadow. Sand lizards are particular and selective creatures; living close to one another and favouring structurally diverse areas of vegetation scattered with patches of open ground in which to lay their eggs. This is their ideal habitat, their home; where their white and dark markings cleverly disguise their delicate body contours against dappled vegetation shadows that provide the perfect camouflage.
The sand lizard is a strictly protected species, as listed in the Habitats Directive of the European Union. In countries such as Great Britain where the species is at the geographic limits of its large range, the lizards are endangered and confined to locations that contain their ideal habitat. In the central areas of their Eurasian range, sand lizards are widespread and found in a variety of habitats across many different landscapes.
There are marked differences within and between populations in social behaviour, activity patterns and use of space. These differences appear to the researcher, to be as varied as the dorsal markings of sand lizard themselves.
This book is a consolidation of sand lizard literature which presents our current knowledge and understanding of the species. It is aimed at the enthusiast, those working in the ecological sector and in site management. The chapters are wide-ranging and review the general appearance, systematics and distribution of the sand lizard across its entire range then examine their diet, behaviour, threats, habitat and population ecology. The reader is taken on a seasonal journey from the emergence of the first lizard in spring to the retreat of juveniles into hibernation. This book also contains valuable practical conservation advice and provides examples of best practice when working to ensure the longevity of our sand lizard populations at a time when development pressure is fierce.


1    Introduction   
2    Description and systematics   
2.1    Nomenclature   
2.2    Colouration, pattern and scalation   
2.3    Morphometric data   
2.4    Systematics and phylogeny   
3    Distribution   
3.1    General distribution   
3.2    Distribution in Eurasia   
3.3    Distribution in Great Britain   
4    The habitats   
4.1    General habitat requirements   
4.2    Basking sites   
4.3    Shelters and retreats   
4.4    Egg-laying sites and winter quarters   
4.5    Vegetation and habitat types   
5    Lizards as predators and prey   
5.1    Diet of sand lizards   
5.1.1    Prey acquisition and hunting methods   
5.1.2    Prey spectrum and size   
5.1.3    Food quantity   
5.1.4    Water absorption   
5.2    Adversities: predators, parasites and injuries   
5.2.1    The anti-predatory strategy of the sand lizard   
5.2.2    Autotomy   
5.2.3    Predators   
5.2.4    Miscellaneous injuries   
5.2.5    Parasite infestations   
6    Activity patterns and phenology   
6.1    Thermoregulation   
6.2    Detectability and activity   
6.3    Daily activity   
6.4    Phenology   
6.5    Hibernation   
7    Reproduction   
7.1    The mating period   
7.1.1    Period of matings   
7.1.2    Male-male interactions   
7.1.3    Mating behaviour   
7.2    Sexual maturity and reproductive cost   
7.2.1    Sexual maturity and participation in the reproduction   
7.2.2    Reproductive cost and clutch sizes   
7.3    From oviposition to hatching   
7.3.1    Timing of oviposition   
7.3.2    Oviposition and parental care   
7.3.3    Location and structure of oviposition sites   
7.3.4    Incubation and hatching   
8    Space utilisation   
8.1    Strategies of space utilisation   
8.2    Home ranges of sand lizards   
8.3    Migration and dispersal potential   
9    The populations   
9.1    Age groups and growth rates   
9.2    Life expectancy and mortality rates   
9.3    Population structure   
9.4    Population sizes and densities   
9.5    Dispersal    
9.6    Minimum habitat areas   
10    Threats   
10.1    Status and Red Lists   
10.2    Causes of decline   
10.2.1    Loss of habitats   
10.2.2    Isolation of habitats and inbreeding   
10.2.3    Manipulation of populations   
10.2.4    Management and planning   
10.2.5    Acoustic barriers   
11    Conservation   
11.1    General conservation and legislative protection   
11.2    The sand lizard as an indicator and umbrella species   
11.3    Habitat management   
11.4    Creation, enhancement and connection of habitats   
11.5    Mitigation measures   
11.5.1    Legal requirements and avoiding harm in project planning   
11.5.2    Conservation of retained habitats with animals for recolonisation   
11.5.3    Mitigation translocations   
11.6    Captive breeding and conservation translocation   
12    References   

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